Gout is an inflammatory arthritis associated with hyperuricemia that is triggered by the crystallization of uric acid within the joints. Gout leads to substantial morbidity by causing severe pain. Although the causes have been identified with treatments available, the prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia continue to be substantial (1).
Gout attack can be recurrent (2,3), often attributable to triggering factors such as high purine food intake. Hence, avoiding high purine food is one the strategies being used in gout management. However, the risk of gout recurrence with purine intake remains unknown.
Purine intake is associated with increased risk of hyperuricemia (4) and gout attacks (5). However, to date no studies have examined whether purine-rich food intake triggers recurrent gout attacks within a short period of time.
Study findings suggest that avoiding or reducing amount of purine-rich foods intake, especially of animal origin, may help reduce the risk of gout attacks (6).
Associated risks include:
Type 2 diabetes (8)
Kidney health (9)
Joint degradation (10)
SCIENTIST HOME PS Mulberry With Kohki
Suggested multidisciplinary rehabilitation:
Uric acid production (17)
Helps to lower serum uric acid (19)
Xanthine oxidase (21)
Kidney inflammation and fibrosis (22)
Monosodium urate crystals formation (23)
Consumption: 2 to 3 times a day, 1 teaspoon each time, to be taken after meal. Dissolve in 250 ml of water (avoid hot water).
Try for 1 month. If there is no positive progress, you may stop taking and seek medical advice.
If positive progress is observed, suggest to continue for 3 to 12 months, depending on individual condition.
Upon attaining satisfactory results, may stop taking.
Storage: Store in a cool and dry place, away from sunlight
Origin: Hong Kong, China
If you have a medical condition, please follow your doctor's medical treatment plan. Do consult your medical doctor before using the Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program (MRP). Please do not proceed if your medical doctor does not recommend the use of our MRP. If you'd like to seek a second opinion from other doctors, you may contact our online "Doctors Without Border", or other professional doctors at your convenience.
參考研究 / Ref:
1. Zhu Y, Pandya BJ, Choi HK. Prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia in the US general population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Oct;63(10):3136-41. doi: 10.1002/art.30520. PMID: 21800283.
2. Gutman AB. The past four decades of progress in the knowledge of gout, with an assessment of the present status. Arthritis Rheum. 1973 Jul-Aug;16(4):431-45. doi: 10.1002/art.1780160402. PMID: 4147308.
3. Neogi T, Hunter DJ, Chaisson CE, Allensworth-Davies D, Zhang Y. Frequency and predictors of inappropriate management of recurrent gout attacks in a longitudinal study. J Rheumatol. 2006 Jan;33(1):104-9. Epub 2005 Nov 1. PMID: 16267879.
4. Choi HK, Liu S, Curhan G. Intake of purine-rich foods, protein, and dairy products and relationship to serum levels of uric acid: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jan;52(1):283-9. doi: 10.1002/art.20761. PMID: 15641075.
5. Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Willett W, Curhan G. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med. 2004 Mar 11;350(11):1093-103. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa035700. PMID: 15014182.
6. Zhang Y, Chen C, Choi H, et al. Purine-rich foods intake and recurrent gout attacks. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71(9):1448-1453. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-201215
7. Grayson PC, Kim SY, LaValley M, Choi HK. Hyperuricemia and incident hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011;63:102–10.
8. Zhu Y, Pandya BJ, Choi HK. Comorbidities of gout and hyperuricemia in the US general population: NHANES 2007–2008. Am J Med. 2012;125:679–87.
9. Kawashima M, Wada K, Ohta H, Terawaki H, Aizawa Y. Association between asymptomatic hyperuricemia and new-onset chronic kidney disease in Japanese male workers: a long-term retrospective cohort study. BMC Nephrol. 2011;12:31. doi:10.1186/1471-2369-12-31.
10. Richette P, Perez-Ruiz F, Doherty M, Jansen TL, Nuki G, Pascual E, et al. Improving cardiovascular and renal outcomes in gout: what should we target? Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2014;. doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.124.
11. Yu Z, Fong WP, Cheng CH. Morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) exhibits potent inhibitory actions on urate transport by the human urate anion transporter (hURAT1) expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35(6):981-6.
12. Yu Z, Fong WP, Cheng CH. The dual actions of morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) as a hypouricemic agent: uricosuric effect and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;316(1):169-7
13. Mo SF, Zhou F, Lv YZ, Hu QH, Zhang DM, Kong LD. Hypouricemic action of selected flavonoids in mice: structure-activity relationships. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30(8):1551-6.
14. Wang CP, Wang Y, Wang X, Zhang X, Ye JF, Hu LS, Kong LD. Mulberroside a possesses potent uricosuric and nephroprotective effects in hyperuricemic mice. Planta Med. 2011;77(8):786-94.
15. Chen L, Lan Z, Zhou Y, Li F, Zhang X, Zhang C, Yang Z, Li P. Astilbin Attenuates Hyperuricemia and Ameliorates Nephropathy in Fructose-Induced Hyperuricemic Rats. Planta Med. 2011.
16. Hu QH, Zhang X, Wang Y, Kong LD. Mangiferin promotes uric acid excretion and kidney function improvement and modulates related renal transporters in hyperuricemic mice. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2010;45(10):1239-46.
17. Ling X, Bochu W. A review of phytotherapy of gout: perspective of new pharmacological treatments. Pharmazie. 2014 Apr;69(4):243-56. PMID: 24791587.
18. Hunyadi A, Liktor-Busa E, Márki A, et al. Metabolic effects of mulberry leaves: exploring potential benefits in type 2 diabetes and hyperuricemia. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:948627. doi:10.1155/2013/948627
22. Xuechen Li1,2, Zhenxin Yan1, Mattias Carlström2, inying Tian1, Xiaolin Zhang1, Wenxuan Zhang1, Song Wu1 and Fei Ye1* Mangiferin Ameliorates Hyperuricemic Nephropathy Which Is Associated With Downregulation of AQP2 and Increased Urinary Uric Acid Excretion. Front. Pharmacol., 07 February 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00049
23. Lanzhou Li,1 Meiyu Teng,1,2 Yange Liu,1 Yidi Qu,1 Yuanzhu Zhang,1 Feng Lin,1 and Di Wang1,3. Academic Editor: Mauro S. Oliveira. Anti-Gouty Arthritis and Antihyperuricemia Effects of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Head Extract in Gouty and Hyperuricemia Animal Models. Volume 2017 |Article ID 5852076 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5852076
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