寄生蟲 / Parasites

寄生蟲

人類是近300種寄生蟲和70多種原生動物的宿主,有些來自我們的靈長類祖先,有些來自我們在地球上相對較短的歷史中馴養或接觸過的動物。我們對寄生蟲感染的認識一直延續到古代,關於寄生蟲和寄生蟲感染的描述出現在最早的著作中,並被考古資料中發現的寄生蟲所證實。寄生蟲的系統研究始於對自然產生理論的否定和細菌理論的傳播。此後,人類寄生蟲學的歷史沿著兩條路線發展:寄生蟲的發現及其與疾病的聯系;疾病的識別及其由寄生蟲引起的發現。

人類主要的蠕蟲和原生動物感染:蛔蟲病、旋毛蟲病、圓線蟲病、麥地那龍線蟲病、淋巴絲蟲病、泥鰍病、盤尾絲蟲病、血吸蟲病、絛蟲病、肺吸蟲病、華支睾吸蟲病、阿片吸蟲病、阿米巴病、賈第蟲病、非洲錐蟲病、利什曼病、瘧疾、弓形蟲病、隱孢子蟲病、環孢子蟲病和微孢子蟲病。

Parasites

Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material.

Parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis.